Indian traditional agriculture uses organic manure, seeds, simple plough, bullocks and primary instruments. These instruments give very less productivity and the use of them was unable to satisfy agricultural requirements of entire nation. Therefore, since 1966 modern agriculture emerge in India. Modern agriculture uses modern inputs like hybrid seeds, chemical fertilisers, pesticides, new machines of agriculture, irrigation. Due to use of these modern inputs agricultural production increase intensively. This was counted as revolution. This revolution was of agriculture, therefore it was called Green Revolution.
1) Green Revolution :
Use of new technology of agriculture started from the year 1960-61 at seven districts of India as ‘pilot project’. This known initially as IADP (Intense Agricultural District Program) that means Intensive agricultural programme for districts. Due to wonderful success with passing of time, it was applied to whole nation. When it was implemented to nation this was known as HYVP (High Yielding Varieties Program) that means program of high yield products which is also known as “Green Revolution”. It is also known as “Modern agricultural technology programme” or “Programme of seeds, fertilizer and water technology.”
2) Multiple Cropping :
Multiple cropping can be obtained by different crops on a cultivated land area. It shows nature of agricultural work. Normally two types of crops are seen : (1) Food grains (2) Non food grains which is also known as cash crops. Wheat, Rice, Coarse grains (Millet/bajra, Sorhum/juvar, Maize etc.) and pulses are included in food grain crops whereas different oilseeds (Groundnut, Sesame , Castor, Soyabean, Linseed, Sunflower, etc.) and sugarcane, rubber, cotton, jute, etc. are included in cash crops.
Reasons for multiple cropping are two : (1) Technological factors (2) Economic factors.
(i) Technological factors : Multiple cropping is depends on its soil, environment, rain, etc. elements. For example, in Madhyapradesh after taking crop of millet/bajri, they take crop of Sugarcane, Tobacco, etc. on the ground of irrigation facilities. This way multiple cropping is possible due to capital, new seeds, fertilisers and credit facilities.
(ii) Economic factors : Economic factors are also important for multiple cropping. These economic factors are as follows :
(1) To maximise price and income (2) Availability of agricultural instruments (3) Size of farm
Protection of insurance (5) Tenure (Tenure avail from landlord) etc.
Availability or scarcity of these factors are responsible for selection of crop.
In 1950-51, approximately 75 % crop of food grains and 25 % crop of cash crops was taken up. After 1966, multiple crop have been seen due to use of inputs of ‘Green Revolution’. In the year 1970-71, about 74 % of food grains, where about 26 % of cash crops were taken. It became as 64 % of food grains and 36 % of cash crops in the year 2006-07. But then again due to change in multiple crops in the year 2010-11 about 66 % of food grains and about 34 % of cash crop were taken.
3) Crop Protection :
Agriculture productivity should increase with the use of pesticides but India has very less use of pesticides per hectare. Economic survey 2015-16 shows that India has only 0.5 kg per hectare use of pesticides where America has 7.0 kg, Europe has 2.5 kg, Japan has 12 kg and Koria has 6.6 kg use of pesticides. This is the reason why 15 to 25% Indian crop get spoiled by insects, diseases, weed, cattles and birds, which may be saved.
Improper information of pesticides, poor quality pesticides and lack of information of proper use of pesticides are big issues of India. Improper use of pesticides in India create big danger to mankind and environment.
CIBRC (Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee) is appointed to inform Indian farmers about various types of pesticides and its level of poison. That publish different booklets to guide farmers which explain about quantity of pesticides, time of usage and level of poison. This information should be spread among farmers, to make pesticides environment friendly. Pesticides should be effective but non poisonous and cheaper to encourage small and marginal farmers for increasing agricultural productivity.
4) Agriculture Research:
ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) is only institute which manages agricultural researches. It provides arrangements for research and also gives adequate help. It is also spreading awareness of Horticulture, Fishering and Cattle rearing science. ICAR has done pioneer work for expansion of green revolution.