what is Green Revolution? Discuss the changes that have taken place in main constituents of Green Revolution.
In 1965-66 and 1966-67, rains failed and famines and droughts in many parts of the country forced to make technological changes for increasing productivity. Green Revolution is a process in which to increase the production in agriculture sector, which has been achieved through improving seeds, fertilizers pesticides and irrigation facilities. Due to green revolution, there has been remarkable growth in production in agriculture sector in a short period.
Agriculture Development after Green Revolution:
After 1968, there has been remarkable increase in production in agriculture sector is known as green revolution. Following factors play important role in Green Revolution.
(1) Improved seeds:
In many states of India, there has been remarkable increase in agriculture sector by improving seeds. For example, in 1980-81 the sowing operation areas with improved seeds in wheat was 72.2%, which was gone up o 86.1% in 1997-98. In the production of rice, the same increased from 45.4% to 57.1% during the same period.
(2) Chemical Fertilizers:
There has been rapid increase in production by using of fertilizers. Fertilizers with nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, are highly effective in increasing production in agriculture sector. For example, in 1951-51, the use of fertilizer was 70,000 tons. It has gone up 24 lakh tons in 2000-01. However, more use of fertilizers has harmful effects. Therefore, he farmers should be aware of this fact.
There has been certain problem regarding use of pesticides in our country. The farmers do not have technology knowledge of using pesticides. However, farmers get success in using pesticides at individual level, but no farmers get necessary information. There has been quite remarkable increase in production by using pesticides. In 1980-81, 45000 lakh tons pesticides were used. It has gone up to 57,000 tons in 1998-99.
It is necessary to provide water to crops at proper intervals for agriculture development and to make technological development successful. In India, many programmes have been implemented for the development of irrigation. For example, in 1950-51, the total area under irrigation was only 17.4%, which has gone up to 40% in 1996-97. Usually, irrigation facilities are available for big and medium farmers. Small farmers are not much benefited by irrigation.
Mechanisation becomes useful in time planning in agriculture. In agriculture, tractors and threshers are used. Tractors are used in ploughing and as carriers of crop and farms produces. Threshers are used to separate grains from chaff.