major problems of Indian agriculture.
factors responsible for low productivity of Indian agriculture.
In India, there are many problems related to agriculture and as a result, we find the productivity of agriculture lower than in many countries of the world. During planning efforts have been made to remove them. However, the progress in the direction is very slow. The major problems of Indian agriculture are as follows:
Major problems of Indian Agriculture:
(1) Land Revenue Collection Systems : Three revenue collection systems – Zamindari system, Mahalwari system and Ryotwari system were prevalent during India’s independence. Tenants of land or landless labourers were cultivating the land under these systems. A large share of crop was compulsorily taken by the landlords as rent of land. This was the reason why farmers were not interested in increasing productivity as they did not make efforts to increase production or they were not ready to implement any innovations, so agricultural production remained about stagnant. As a result, agriculture production did not increase as per nation’s requirement.
After independence to protect tillers and to control rent of land, “Tillers land” act was passed. But this act was not completely implemented and due to that farmers are not exploitation free. Finally, productivity of agriculture sector become series issue.
(2) Low holding or small size of land:
In India, population has gone up at a higher rate and on the other hands, in other sectors than agriculture, the development has remained slow. Therefore, agriculture sector has been under pressure. Thus, land holding has become very small. In India, there is more number of small and marginal farmers among the total number of farmers. There are around 37% small farmers and 59% marginal farmers. Small and marginal farmers have smallholding of low units. They have hardly 1 to 4 hectares of pieces of land.
On the other hand, in total number of farmers, the medium and big farmers are around 8% but they posses 44% of the total land. They have large land units comprising of 4 hectares or more.
Here, we find disparity in land holding o the farmers. That is the reason why we find disparity of income and wealth among farmers.
Naturally, small land units cannot make use of technology in optimum manner. Therefore, in agriculture both production and productivity remain lower. In big land units, landowner does not work on the farm but gets the work done. Therefore, productivity remains low.
(3) Agriculture Finance : Majority of the farmers are facing poverty in India and they are in need of agriculture finance. To buy fertilisers, seeds, pesticides, etc. they require finance to do cultivation. But, since independence a great role is played by private money lenders. 71.6 % agriculture finance business was managed by money lenders in 1951. They were providing finance at a very high rate of interest, not even that, they were doing manipulation of account to exploit poor farmers.
After independence government had nationalised banks which has reduced the importance of money lenders. Government has expanded insitutional agriculture finance by constructing regional rural banks in 1975 and National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) in 1982. Due to all these efforts, the role of money lenders fell down to 27 % where remaining entire agriculture credit is managed by institutes. These factors prove that farmers are paying higher cost to avail credit and due to that their revenue (profitability) remain very low. As profits are remaining very low farmers are not much interested to improve productivity on to do agriculture oriented work and agricultural productivity has also remained low.
(4) Weak (poor) economic condition:
In India, 92% farmers are marginal and small farmers. Their income is quite low. Their income is usually spent on daily consumption of the family. Therefore, they are unable to use necessary inputs for agriculture. Thus, they cannot invest in agriculture. Continuously, lower income, lower investment and lower productivity create a vicious circle. The farmers often have to incur debts. They borrow loan frequently often failing to pay in time and leading to liquidation. Therefore it is said, “An Indian farmer is born with debt, lives and dies in debt.” However, this is not completely true.
(5) Agriculture Marketing : Due to weak infrastructural facility Indian remote villages are not having adequate road or transportation facility to connect agriculture markets. Even agriculture markets have different rates of produce at the time of season and at the end of season. Majority cases high price benefits go to traders and hoarders. Farmers, who are under the debt are forced to sell their crop before crop get ready to local lenders and brokers. Farmers are least informative so they do not have knowledge of market, knowledge of market rates, selling procedure. Therefore, they are not able to get good returns of their crop and due to this they become pessimist.
(6) Inadequate irrigation:
Indian agriculture still depends on rain mainly. Therefore, here is the element of uncertainty in Indian agriculture. Due to lack of proper irrigation facilities, the crops remain undernourished. During a year, it is not possible to get more than one crop from the same land unit. Only 40% of the total land in India gets irrigation facilities. Thus, inadequate irrigation facilities can be called on of the major problems of Indian agriculture.
(7) Rural Social Structure : Indian farmers are fatalist and having least information. Rural society is bound with old traditions and structure. As they are fatalist, they accept problems given by nature and accept situation of scarcity. So, they do cultivation for their substistance only. They are not having inspirations to accomplish, financial advancement, improvement of development, increment in salary. This is the reason, why agriculture, which is focus purpose of country zones is having low productivity.
Technological Factors :
Indian agriculture sector utilises old traditional technology, old equipment’s, ideologies, techniques, etc. which make agriculture weak. Even in the present, farmers use plough and bullock instead of tractors. They use traditional seeds instead of hybrid seeds which give low productivity. They use cow dung as manure instead of chemical based fertiliser which give low productivity. Indian farmers use very less proportion of pesticides and newer technology to protect crops. Therefore, Indian agriculture sector moves ahead very slowly.
Other Factors :
(1) Pressure of Population: One of the big reason for low productivity of agriculture sector is population pressure on it. Population pressure on agriculture sector can be understood by dependancy on agriculture about employment. At the time of independence 72 % population was engaged in agriculture that reduced to 58 % in 2001-02, which was giving 49 % employment in agriculture in 2013-14. Thus, burden on agriculture reduced, but, still it is higher than other sectors and even high compared abroad economies.
(2) Lack of Economic Planning: Government of India has used first five year plan only for agriculture sector. But, from the second five year plan (1956) India’s economic planning focused to industries. The government has not taken that much efforts, not allocated time and money for the agricultural sector as compared to industrial sector and due to that Indian agriculture sector is in a worrisome (troubling) condition.
Tag:Agriculture, Agriculture credits, Agriculture Finance, Agriculture loan, Agriculture Marketing, education, factors responsible for low productivity of Indian agriculture, Inadequate irrigation, Land Revenue Collection Systems, Low holding or small size of land, major problems of Indian agriculture, Rural Social Structure, STC, stceducation, Zamindari system