Unemployment in Developing Countries
Unemployment means such a situation where people willing and capable to work at existing rate of wages are on search of employment but cannot find it.
Unemployment is one of the serious problems facing India today. A person who is ready to work at existing rate, who is qualified, who is in search of work but cannot find work is said to be unemployed. These included educated and sometimes, even highly qualified persons.
Unemployment in developing countries:
There are four types of unemployment in developing countries.
- Disguised unemployment:
When more than required numbers of workers are involved in an occupation or activity, the unemployment is known as disguised unemployment. In such cases, even if some labourers are removed from work, the total production is not affect. It is generally seen in the agricultural sector of economy. If six persons are employment in a far where only four are required, the two persons are surplus. Such persons are suffering from disguised unemployment.
- Seasonal unemployment:
India is an agricultural country and agriculture is mainly dependent on rain. Due to insufficient irrigation facilities and irregular rain, people get employment only for 7 to 9 months in a year. During the remaining 3-5 months in a year, they remain unemployed. Such an employment is known as seasonal unemployment.
Semi-unemployment or under employment is a situation when persons get work for a few days, months or a part of year and remain unemployed during rest of the year. Many man-hours are wasted in this type of unemployment. Sometimes, persons have high qualifications and experience but get lower category of work; then also there is under-employment.
- Open unemployment:
This is a situation where there are first time job seekers entering the labour market and they cannot get work. They remain unemployed. Educated unemployment is this type of unemployment. They are willing and able to work at the current wage rate, but cannot get work. It is called open unemployment.
Prevention to stop unemployment:
- The handicraft and other such small-scale industries should be encouraged.
- Agro-based industries such as dairy-farming, food-processing, cotton etc. should set up in various parts of the country.
- Better irrigation facilities will gave to the farmers to grow crops throughout the year.
- Our education system needs to be changed. Job-oriented courses should be taught at the SSC and HSC level.
- Industries should be encouraged to provide training and guidance to students in school and colleges.