Effects of migration
Migration means to move from one place to another. It means to leave one place and settle at another place. This is the ordinary meaning of the word but the scientific definition of the word can be given in the following manner.
Definition : Migration refers to movement of a person from one place to another place, away from native place either within or outside the country for job, occupation, business or in search of better standard of living, on a permanent basis.
The effects of migration can be divided into two parts from economic point of view: (A) Positive effects and (B) Negative effects.
Effects of Migration
Positive Effects of Migration Negative Effects of Migration
(A) Positive effects:
There are positive effects of migration. They are as follows:
(1) Improvement in life-style:
The main and important purpose of migration is to earn more income and create more sources of income. Some people migrate to cities from villages to earn. They send some share of their income to their families. As a result, the life style of the people living in the villages also changes and improves.
(2) Growth of Income:
The main objective of migration is income generation and rise in income. Those who move to cities from villages for livelihood send a major portion of their income to their families which improves the standard of living of those in villages.
Moreover, a share from that income is also invested in agriculture which remarkably improves the production and productivity in agricultural sector.
It has been seen in the recent past that the money earned by them is being invested in business and as a result, agriculture related business and agro industries are also developing.
(3) Contribution towards a Faster Economic Development:
When the people of our country migrate to other countries they send a part of their earnings to their families. Also, they invest in business, trading and industries which increase the foreign exchange of our country enabling a faster economic growth and economic development of the country. Since the new economic reforms of 1991, migration has rapidly increased resulting into greater inflow of foreign exchange and economic development has been taking place at a faster pace.
Other than that, Indians go abroad for higher education and the expertise that they gain from there is used for the development of our country.
(2) Money Order economy:
Many people from Kutch and North Gujarat have migrated to big cities from their villages to earn a living. They send money by Money Order (M.O.) to their family members. This kind of ‘money order economy’ has made remarkable impact on the economy and standard of living in the villages. These villages depend on money orders they receive from their relatives in the cities.
(3) Development in Kerala:
Many people from Kerala have migrated to Arab countries to earn more income. They send some of their earnings to their families, which have contributed remarkably to the economic development of Kerala.
(4) Development in agriculture in Saurashtra:
Many people have migrated to Surat from the villages in Saurashtra. They earn quite well in Surat and help their families with their money. As a result, there has been increase in investment in agriculture. We find positive proofs of increase in fertility of land and productivity of agriculture sector in Saurashtra.
(b) Negative effects:
The people who migrate to cities from village are generally poor, less educated and semi skilled or unskilled. These people migrate to cities because they do no find any work of opportunities for employment in villages. Therefore, there are negative effects of migrate also. These effects are as follows:
Slums means dirty, small-congested place. The people who have been pushed from villages to cities have been little income. It is also uncertain therefore they have to live in slums. There are problem of cleanliness. Their quality of living remains low.
(2) Shortage of Infrastructural Facilities:
An unorganised urbanisation, hutments and dirty slum dwellings make the local administration ineffective as they are unable to provide enough water, drainage, road, transportation, communication, toilets, education, schools, health services, etc. This results in serious health issues as the poor class are affected by serious life threatening diseases.
People who migrate from villages to big cities create problems regarding environment in the cities. As there are no facilities for latrines, toilets, bathrooms, therefore dirtiness increases. There are no facilities for discharge of wastes and as a result, pollution increase. There are no proper transport facilities to commute to place of work. Therefore, they have to use private vehicles, which create pollution by throwing out smoke and fumes.
(4) Social evils:
People migrating from villages do not get work or income according to the expectation. Therefore, to fulfill the dreams of high comfortable life turn towards criminal is activities like theft, burglary, robberies etc. thus, such people often create social evils in urban areas.